Released white papers

REPORTS FROM JUNE 2007 (Cambridge)

019 - Impact of RFID on Aircraft Operations Processes

Alan Thorne, Dan Barrett, Duncan McFarlane

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK

The air transport industry is a complex business where airports, airlines and handling operators have to work together to provide efficient services. The focus of this research is to look at how identification technologies such as RFID can improve aircraft airport operations processes and reduce the impact of operational disturbances.

018 - ROI from Auto-ID Deployment in Aerospace Logistics

Victor Prodonoff Jr., Yoon Min Hwang, Rick Mitchell, Samuel Bloch Da Silva

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK; Auto-ID Lab, ICU, Korea; IfM/CTM, University of Cambridge, UK; Embraer S.A., Brazil

This paper presents results from investigation performed within the Aerospace Identification Technologies Programme into methods for business case analysis and return on investment models. It focuses on aerospace logistics, as requested by Programme sponsors, and looks more specifically into the benefits from improved Tracking and Tracing to inventory management and decision-making in industrial operations. The research builds on previous work carried out within the Programme, yet its main contribution is the introduction of decision trees to the ROI analysis process. These are used as a tool for understanding and taking risk into account when designing the adoption path for automatic identification technologies.

017 - Tracking System Evaluation and Performance Measurement: Embraer Case Study

Thomas Kelepouris, Samuel Bloch Da Silva*, Duncan McFarlane

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK; *Embraer S.A., Brazil

The performance of supply chain tracking systems is the cornerstone for the effectiveness of many business operations. But often the managers might ask "How well is my tracking system performing?" or "How much money is the tracking system saving us per year?". This report provides a method to answer these questions through a step-by-step approach. We demonstrate the value of the method through a case study undertaken in Embraer S.A. The results show how the value of a tracking system and its overall performance can be assessed. The analysis of the results provides an insight into the determinants of the value of a tracking system.

Requirements Analysis for ID-Based Sensor Integration in Aircraft Part Pooling

MPhil Thesis by Taam Momen

This is not an AeroID report, but is relevant to the line of work conducted in the "Sensor Integration" research theme, therefore it is provided as an add-on to the reports.

009 - Requirements for RFID-based Sensor Integration in Landing Gear Monitoring A Case Study

Béla Pátkai, Lila Theodorou, Duncan McFarlane, Kyle Schmidt*

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK; *Messier-Dowty Inc., Canada

This case study aims at analysing the requirements for the integration of RFID and sensors in the integrated system health management process of aircraft landing gears. The study is based on a number of interviews and site visits at Messier-Dowty and Messier Services as well as on previous research conducted at the Cambridge Auto-ID Lab. The discussion, vision and the conclusions all aim at presenting the gathered requirements and the establishments for system design at a general level, hence the information about specific sensors and data requirements should be regarded as illustrative, realistic examples, not as an actual design specification.

014 - Guidelines for Lifecycle ID and Data Management

Mark Harrison

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK

This paper summarizes the research activity on Lifecycle ID & Data Management during the course of the Aerospace ID Technologies programme. An update on recent activities regarding messaging for maintenance events is included, together with an outlook envisaging how existing messaging systems within the air transport industry can be merged with cross-sector information retrieval approaches, such as the EPC Network.

013 - Identification and Condition Monitoring of Mobile Objects by ID-based Sensor Integration - A Case Study

Béla Pátkai, Lila Theodorou, Duncan McFarlane, Victor Prodonoff Jr.

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK

The complex task of identifying and monitoring mobile objects remotely for example, perishable goods, containers, vehicles and machine parts requires the efficient integration of sensors and a number of other technologies. This case study aims at analysing the requirements for such an integrated system and evaluating the functionality, applications and applicability of the GlobalTrakѢ product of the System Planning Corporation against these requirements.

012 - Track and Trace Performance Measurement

Thomas Kelepouris, Duncan McFarlane

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK

Automatic identification technologies are enablers for enhanced supply chain tracking and tracing performance. This report proposes a way to measure track and trace performance in an objective, comparable and normalized manner. The case studies carried out revealed that the following factors affect the ability of a company to determine the ongoing location of a product: identification accuracy, product processing delays, aggregation information accuracy and the configuration of checkpoints along the supply chain. This report analyzes how each of the above affects tracking performance. Further, the quantitative metrics for each of the factors are defined using a model to represent supply chain tracking. In addition, a way to combine the individual metrics into an overall tracking performance metric, which represents the amount of tracking information that the system can communicate, is also suggested. It had been earlier identified that the usefulness of lifecycle tracing information is affected by its quality, timeliness and the cost for obtaining it. Based on these, this report proposes a method to model the way lifecycle information evolves throughout the lifecycle of a product in order to estimate the quality, timeliness and cost of the final lifecycle information available to the decision maker. Also suggested here is a way to estimate the information value of the final information product as a function of the aforementioned properties and the intrinsic value of perfect information. Finally, the report analyzes the way that the proposed tracking and tracing assessment methods should be applied in a company, and demonstrates their use through examples. To conclude, the report suggests how the above could be used for a return on investment (ROI) study for a tracking solution.


009 - RFID-based Sensor Integration in Aerospace

Béla Pátkai, Duncan McFarlane

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK

This report addresses the emerging challenges of the fusion of RFID and sensors in the aerospace industry. Keeping in mind these two focal points the study elaborates on the potential and limitations of applicability, briefly surveys ideas, requirements, related work, available technology and services. The overall aim of this work is to provide an unbiased review on the topic in addition to proposing research and technology projects aiming at the smoothening and catalysis of the integration process.

010 - Automatic ID Systems: Enablers for Track and Trace Performance

Thomas Kelepouris, Samuel Bloch da Silva, Duncan McFarlane

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK; Embraer S.A., Brazil

This report presents the results from a series of case studies regarding track and trace performance in the aerospace industry. The report briefly describes the tracking and tracing operations of the companies studied, and identifies the challenges they face with regard to tracking and tracing. The report analyzes the factors that affect track and trace effectiveness. It further analyzes how each factor affects performance and how automatic identification technologies can optimize effectiveness and efficiency in the respective operations. Finally, the report describes how these findings can provide the basis for a track and trace performance measurement framework, which will be able to assess the performance of a company in different track and trace operations.

011 - EPC Identifiers for aerospace

Mark Harrison

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK

This paper is a technical report developed in conjunction with the ATA RFID on Parts work group to express end-user requirements and propose a technical solution, aligned with existing EPCglobal Tag Data Standards.

REPORTS FROM JUNE 2006 (Washington)

005 - Lifecycle ID and Lifecycle Data Management

Mark Harrison, Ajith Kumar Parlikad

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK

This paper focuses on issues that must be considered in the design of lifecycle ID and data management systems, considering both intra-organizational issues and inter-organizational issues.

006 - Technology Selection for Identification Applications

Ed Sharp

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK

This report documents the conversion of a theoretical model for selecting the right identification technology for a given application into a working tool that assists the user through the selection process.

007 - Data Synchronization Specification

Shigeya Suzuki, Mark Harrison

Auto-ID Lab Japan, Keio University, Japan; Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK

Generalized synchronization of tag data and networked database is a challenging topic, but once synchronization-based data distribution is provided, operators such as maintenance mechanics can update information without connectivity to the network or networked databases. This report presents an overview of requirements and an initial proposal of data synchronization. This report also covers topics that need to be discussed with partners, as a vehicle to share current thoughts and issues around this research.

008 - Track and Trace Case Studies Report

Thomas Kelepouris, Tom Baynham, Duncan McFarlane

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK

As part of the track and trace theme of the Aero-ID programme, a series of case studies are being undertaken to establish the role of identification technologies can play in improving tracking and tracing. This report presents some initial results from two case studies focused on track and trace operations, which took place at a distribution centre for commercial aircraft parts and a military aircraft spare parts supply chain. The aims of the case studies were to analyze companies main operations and to identify potential areas of operational improvement. The report explores issues regarding both logistics operations and repairable parts management. Through the study, we identify the needs for improved tracking and tracing information quality; we propose how automatic identification technologies can improve information quality and in turn optimize operational efficiency.


001 - Electronic Pedigree and Authentication Issues for Aerospace Part Tracking

Mark Harrison, Andy Shaw

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK

This report introduces electronic pedigree and authentication issues for aerospace parts tracking and draws upon insights from the activities of the Drug Security Network (DSN), which was formed to consider how to make the pharmaceutical supply chain safer and more secure.

002 - Scoping of ID Application Matching

Alan Thorne, Duncan McFarlane, Kevin Le Goff, and Ajith Parlikad

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK

This report presents the scope of work for the ID Application matching theme of the Aero-ID Project. This theme arises from the realisation that the selection of ID technologies for the Aerospace sector is a complex process, and in particular, the use of RFID is frequently by no means a certainty. Hence the development of tools and guidelines to help sponsors with this process is beneficial in supporting adoption of ID technologies in this sector.

003 - Aero-ID Sensor Integration: Scope of Work

James Brusey, Alan Thorne

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK

This report presents the scope of work undertaken in the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) Sensor Integration theme of the Aero-ID Project. This theme arises from the realisation that establishing the identity of a product or component is often not enough. There is a growing awareness that to manage our resources efficiently and effectively, it is necessary to also know the condition or state of the component. On its own, RFID cannot help us and other types of sensor will be required. For many application areas, establishing identity will be essential to the process of converting sensory data into knowledge about the condition of a particular component. In other words, the result of "fusing" the data from regular and RFID sensors will be more informative than that obtained from either one alone.

004 - Track and Trace Requirements Scoping

Thomas Kelepouris, Lila Theodorou, Duncan McFarlane, Alan Thorne, and Mark Harrison

Auto-ID Lab, University of Cambridge, UK

This report provides an overview of the industrial requirements with regard to the optimization of track and trace processes across the aerospace supply chain. It also demonstrates how the application of ID-based solutions has improved track and trace practices in different industries. The aims of the report are to outline inefficiencies of current track and trace practices, describe the industrial requirements for improved track and trace and to demonstrate both the potential impact of RFID technology in this area and the business benefits that companies can gain from it. The report analyzes the key issues that result from the requirements analysis and the major research challenges that emerge from these.